• Fluoride up to 95%
• Arsenic V and pre-oxidized Arsenic III
• Other residual heavy metal ions
Some advocates for the removal of fluoride from tap water, believe that the truth about the harmful side effects of fluoridation does not reach the public easily because fluoride, a waste byproduct of many heavy manufacturing industries – such as aluminum, steel, fertilizer, cement and other industries — must be disposed of in some fashion. If it were not used as a “tooth decay prevention” additive to municipal water supplies, these heavy industries would have to pay millions of dollars to have it disposed of properly, so the pressure to keep fluoride listed with the FDA as a “healthy” additive to water and not as a toxin requiring costly disposal – is great. Thus the political pressure to keep fluoride in our public drinking water is strong.
As reports about the harmful effects of fluoridated drinking water continue to emerge and as more and more people question this public policy, we leave it to our customers to decide for themselves the necessity of removing fluoride from their drinking water source.
The PF-2™ Fluoride Reduction Elements are designed as an optional post filter addition for use with the Black Berkey® purification elements. They adsorb the following undesirable compounds found in drinking water.
Fluoride: Testing for fluoride was based on 20-30ppm of the ion in the influent aqueous solution at a flow rate of no more than 3 gpm (11 lpm) per cubic foot of media. Results of < 1ppm of the fluoride ion in the effluent were typical for the media (>95% reduction). Under optimum conditions, effluent concentrations of less than 50 ppb were readily achieved (>99.75% reduction).
Arsenic: This product uniquely targets the entire family of arsenic oxide anions as well as the arsenic cations.
Under normal conditions it is recommended that each set of two PF-2™ elements be replaced after 1,000 gallons (3,785 liters). The Royal Berkey® system is about 3.25 gallons (12.3 liters) therefore the PF-2™ filters should be replaced after 1,000/3.25 (3,785/12.3) or 307 refills. If the system is refilled about one time per day, the PF-2™’s should be replaced after 10 months, if the system is refilled about twice per day, the PF-2™’s should be replaced about every five months). Actual capacity is dependent on the presence of other competing contaminants in the source water. High levels of fluoride, arsenic and heavy metals may reduce the capacity and efficiency of the elements.
- Do not boil this element.
- PF-2™ elements reduce filtration flow rate by 15-20%.
- Our original tests were done using gravity alone to purge the PF-2™ elements. Since then, we have added a step by using purging buttons which are much more efficient at removing any residual process dust from the PF-2™ media. The test does not distinguish between activated alumina (Al2O3) and Aluminum (Al). So we had to use the total count of aluminum and activated alumina in our tests.
- The media used in the PF-2™ filter elements contains high-grade activated alumina (Al2O3), which currently is the most efficient media available for extracting fluoride from water. Activated alumina is inert. Below are the results we obtained when testing the PF-2™ elements (the water was not pre-filtered through the Black Berkey® elements). The reduction over time is due to additional residual process dust being washed free from the PF-2™ elements as the system is used. To give a scale for comparison purposes we include test results from a national brand toothpaste and water boiled in an aluminum pan.
- National brand toothpaste 52.878 ppm aluminum
- Water boiled in an aluminum pan for five minutes: 2.791 ppm aluminum
- PF2™ after conditioning (5 cycles): .178 ppm aluminum
- PF2™ after 10 Cycles: .037 ppm aluminum
- PF2™ after 20 Cycles: .029 ppm aluminum
While the above results indicate that the residual process dust adds a minute amount of activated alumina to the water, the Black Berkey® purification elements reduce aluminum from the water. We tested water that naturally contained .320ppm aluminum and filtered it through the combination of the Black Berkey® and the post conditioned PF-2™ filtration elements (5 cycles). The results showed a net reduction in aluminum contamination (Raw influent: .320ppm – Effluent after passing through the Black Berkey® and PF-2™ elements: .232ppm). Again, the standard tests cannot distinguish between aluminum (Al) and activated alumina (Al2O3), which is inert. Nevertheless, the tests showed a net reduction by the Black Berkey® element in the combination of naturally occurring aluminum plus any residual activated alumina (Al2O3)process dust from the PF-2™ elements.